EtymologyGreek επιθαλαμιον, noun use of the neuter form of επιθαλαμιος ‘nuptial’, from επι− + θαλαμος ‘bridal chamber’.
Epithalamium (from Greek; epi- upon, and thalamium nuptial chamber, sometimes also spelled "epithalamion") specifically refers to a form of poem that is written for the bride. Or, specifically, written for the bride on the way to her marital chamber.
HistoryIt was originally among the Greeks a song in praise of bride and bridegroom, sung by a number of boys and girls at the door of the nuptial chamber. According to the scholiast on Theocritus, one form was employed at night, and another, to arouse the bride and bridegroom on the following morning. In either case, as was natural, the main burden of the song consisted of invocations of blessing and predictions of happiness, interrupted from time to time by the ancient chorus of Hymen hymenaee. Among the Romans a similar custom was in vogue, but the song was sung by girls only, after the marriage guests had gone, and it contained much more of what modern morality would condemn as obscene.
Development as a Literary Form
In the hands of the poets the epithalamium was developed into a special literary form, and received considerable cultivation. Sappho, Anacreon, Stesichorus and Pindar are all regarded as masters of the species, but the finest example preserved in Greek literature is the 18th Idyll of Theocritus, which celebrates the marriage of Menelaus and Helen. In Latin, the epithalamium, imitated from Fescennine Greek models, was a base form of literature, when Catullus redeemed it and gave it dignity by modelling his Marriage of Thetis and Peleus on a lost ode of Sappho.
In later times Statius, Ausonius, Sidonius Apollinaris and Claudian are the authors of the best-known epithalamia in classical Latin; and they have been imitated by Buchanan, Julius Caesar Scaliger, Sannazaro, and a whole host of modern Latin poets, with whom, indeed, the form was at one time in great favor.
The names of Ronsard, Malherbe and Scarron are especially associated with the species in French literature, and d'Iarini and Metastasio in Italian. Perhaps no poem of this class has been more universally admired than the pastoral Epithalamium of Edmund Spenser (1595), though he has found no unworthy rivals - Ben Jonson, Donne and Francis Quarles. Ben Jonson's friend, Sir John Suckling, is known for his epithalamium "A Ballad Upon a Wedding." In his ballad, Suckling playfully demystifies the usual celebration of marriage by detailing comic rustic parallels and identifying sex as the great leveler.
At the close of In Memoriam A.H.H., Tennyson has appended a poem, on the nuptials of his sister, which is strictly an epithalamium.
The term is occasionally used beyond poetry, for example to describe Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream.
epithalamium in German: Epithalamium
epithalamium in Spanish: Epitalamio
epithalamium in French: Épithalame
epithalamium in Galician: Epitalamio
epithalamium in Italian: Epitalamio
epithalamium in Japanese: 祝婚歌
epithalamium in Polish: Epitalamium
epithalamium in Portuguese: Epitalâmio
epithalamium in Russian: Эпиталама